Chapter 12: Glossary

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Adaptation is the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.41

Adaptive capacity refers to the level of ability a community has to leverage relationships, social constructs, and knowledge to adjust to changing conditions in the community and/or greater society or world.

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases on their global-warming potential by converting gases into the equivalent effect of releasing carbon dioxide. For example, a unit of carbon dioxide equals one unit of carbon dioxide equivalent, whereas a unit of methane, which has a global-warming potential of 25 is equivalent to 25 units of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Carbon neutral refers to the net quantity of carbon dioxide released from operations being zero. Carbon neutrality can be achieved by releasing no carbon dioxide or by balancing carbon dioxide emissions with offset activities, such as sequestration.

Closed-loop system. A system of handling production supply chains in which materials at the end of their product life are re-used, recycled or re-manufactured into new products such that no waste is created.

Co-benefits are advantages to the community that any climate action strategy may have beyond reducing emissions. The strategies in this plan specifically take into account the co-benefits of public health, mobility choice, environmental quality, resilience, local economic development, and community equity.

Community equity means all residents have the opportunity to participate and thrive in an inclusive society. This requires rectifying unequal access to resources and opportunities caused by historic and current systems of oppression and exclusion related to race, income, ability, gender, sexual identity, and other factors. An equitable community overcomes disparities by providing increased levels of support to community members based on their needs. In Salem, it is a priority to advance equity in decision-making processes and the outcomes of those processes, including policies, investments, practices, and procedures. Strategies with the Community Equity indicator have the potential to increase equity in Salem by addressing systems and practices that have historically disadvantaged groups of Salem residents and by maximizing benefits for frontline communities.

Environmental quality is integrally connected to individual and community wellbeing and refers to the health of our air, water, and land. Strategies with the Environmental Quality indicator have the potential to improve the health of Salem’s air, water, and land.

Frontline communities. People of color, immigrants, refugees, and lower-income residents who have increased exposure and sensitivity to hazards and a reduced capacity to adapt due to systemic and institutional racism and classism.

GHG Protocol. Greenhouse gas protocol, commonly referred to as GHG Protocol. The GHG Protocol is a global framework for measuring and reporting greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases (GHG) trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to climate change. Examples of greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases (such as hydrofluorocarbons).

Local economy refers to employment opportunities and the production, buying, and selling of goods and services in Salem. Strategies with the Local Economy indicator are those that can contribute to the health or growth of Salem’s economy by benefiting local businesses, encouraging entrepreneurship, creating jobs, and keeping money in Salem.

A metric ton is a unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms.

Mitigation refers to a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs).42

Mobility choice is connected with public health and environmental quality and refers to Salem residents and visitors having access to multiple ways of moving throughout the city and not having to rely only on individual ownership of vehicles. Strategies with the Mobility Choice indicator have the potential to increase mobility choice by providing safe and convenient access to transportation options such as walking, biking, carpooling, taking public transit, and working from home.

Public health refers to the protection of a community’s health and the prevention of problems before they happen through educational programs, policies, services, and research. Strategies with the Public Health indicator have the potential to improve the physical and mental health of Salem’s communities.

Representative concentration pathways (RCPs) refer to the possible scenarios resulting from greenhouse gas emissions and land use practices over time. RCP8.5 is a high-emission scenario that is frequently used as a “business-as-usual” scenario.

Resilience is the ability of people and their communities to anticipate, accommodate and positively adapt to or thrive amidst changing climate conditions and hazard events. Resilient communities enjoy a high quality of life, reliable systems, and economic vitality, and they conserve resources for present and future generations.43

Strategies in this CAP refer to the recommended actions for implementation throughout Salem to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase climate resilience. Strategies are nested under "Objectives" in the Climate Action Strategy List (see Appendix 8). The term "strategy" in this plan is differentiated from "scenarios," which refer to the modeling of possible future GHG emissions pathways; "targets" refer to emission reduction outcomes that were modeled (see Chapter 7).

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) measures the amount of travel for all vehicles in a geographic region over a given period of time, typically a one-year period. It is calculated as the sum of the number of miles traveled by each vehicle.44

Zero waste is defined as diverting 90% of waste from landfills through waste reduction, composting, recycling and reusing.

Adaptation is the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.41

Adaptive capacity refers to the level of ability a community has to leverage relationships, social constructs, and knowledge to adjust to changing conditions in the community and/or greater society or world.

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases on their global-warming potential by converting gases into the equivalent effect of releasing carbon dioxide. For example, a unit of carbon dioxide equals one unit of carbon dioxide equivalent, whereas a unit of methane, which has a global-warming potential of 25 is equivalent to 25 units of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Carbon neutral refers to the net quantity of carbon dioxide released from operations being zero. Carbon neutrality can be achieved by releasing no carbon dioxide or by balancing carbon dioxide emissions with offset activities, such as sequestration.

Closed-loop system. A system of handling production supply chains in which materials at the end of their product life are re-used, recycled or re-manufactured into new products such that no waste is created.

Co-benefits are advantages to the community that any climate action strategy may have beyond reducing emissions. The strategies in this plan specifically take into account the co-benefits of public health, mobility choice, environmental quality, resilience, local economic development, and community equity.

Community equity means all residents have the opportunity to participate and thrive in an inclusive society. This requires rectifying unequal access to resources and opportunities caused by historic and current systems of oppression and exclusion related to race, income, ability, gender, sexual identity, and other factors. An equitable community overcomes disparities by providing increased levels of support to community members based on their needs. In Salem, it is a priority to advance equity in decision-making processes and the outcomes of those processes, including policies, investments, practices, and procedures. Strategies with the Community Equity indicator have the potential to increase equity in Salem by addressing systems and practices that have historically disadvantaged groups of Salem residents and by maximizing benefits for frontline communities.

Environmental quality is integrally connected to individual and community wellbeing and refers to the health of our air, water, and land. Strategies with the Environmental Quality indicator have the potential to improve the health of Salem’s air, water, and land.

Frontline communities. People of color, immigrants, refugees, and lower-income residents who have increased exposure and sensitivity to hazards and a reduced capacity to adapt due to systemic and institutional racism and classism.

GHG Protocol. Greenhouse gas protocol, commonly referred to as GHG Protocol. The GHG Protocol is a global framework for measuring and reporting greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases (GHG) trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to climate change. Examples of greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases (such as hydrofluorocarbons).

Local economy refers to employment opportunities and the production, buying, and selling of goods and services in Salem. Strategies with the Local Economy indicator are those that can contribute to the health or growth of Salem’s economy by benefiting local businesses, encouraging entrepreneurship, creating jobs, and keeping money in Salem.

A metric ton is a unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms.

Mitigation refers to a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs).42

Mobility choice is connected with public health and environmental quality and refers to Salem residents and visitors having access to multiple ways of moving throughout the city and not having to rely only on individual ownership of vehicles. Strategies with the Mobility Choice indicator have the potential to increase mobility choice by providing safe and convenient access to transportation options such as walking, biking, carpooling, taking public transit, and working from home.

Public health refers to the protection of a community’s health and the prevention of problems before they happen through educational programs, policies, services, and research. Strategies with the Public Health indicator have the potential to improve the physical and mental health of Salem’s communities.

Representative concentration pathways (RCPs) refer to the possible scenarios resulting from greenhouse gas emissions and land use practices over time. RCP8.5 is a high-emission scenario that is frequently used as a “business-as-usual” scenario.

Resilience is the ability of people and their communities to anticipate, accommodate and positively adapt to or thrive amidst changing climate conditions and hazard events. Resilient communities enjoy a high quality of life, reliable systems, and economic vitality, and they conserve resources for present and future generations.43

Strategies in this CAP refer to the recommended actions for implementation throughout Salem to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase climate resilience. Strategies are nested under "Objectives" in the Climate Action Strategy List (see Appendix 8). The term "strategy" in this plan is differentiated from "scenarios," which refer to the modeling of possible future GHG emissions pathways; "targets" refer to emission reduction outcomes that were modeled (see Chapter 7).

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) measures the amount of travel for all vehicles in a geographic region over a given period of time, typically a one-year period. It is calculated as the sum of the number of miles traveled by each vehicle.44

Zero waste is defined as diverting 90% of waste from landfills through waste reduction, composting, recycling and reusing.

Page last updated: 15 November 2021, 15:03