Chapter 13: Works Cited

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  1. Extreme fire danger days are defined as the mean number of days in summer which are classified as very high fire danger days, calculated as the days with 100-hour fuel moisture that is below the 3rd percentile from historical years. Source: ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  2. City of Salem and Cascadia Partners. “Salem, Oregon: Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory.” May 24, 2019. https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/final-community-greenhouse-gas-inventory.pdf.

  3. City of Salem. Salem Housing Needs Analysis 2015-2035. December 2014. https://www.cityofsalem.net/CityDocuments/econorthwest-housing-needs-analysis-2015-2035.pdf

  4. Brown, Kate. “Executive Order No. 20-04: Directing State Agencies to Take Actions to Reduce and Regulate Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Executive Order, Office of the Governor, State of Oregon, 2021, https://www.oregon.gov/gov/Documents/executive_orders/eo_20-04.pdf.

  5. Brown, Kate. “Executive Order No. 17-21: Accelerating Zero Emission Vehicle Adoption in Oregon to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Address Climate Change.” Executive Order, Office of the Governor, State of Oregon, 2017, https://www.oregon.gov/gov/Documents/executive_orders/eo_17-21.pdf.

  6. Oregon Department of Energy. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data.” Accessed April 6, 2021. https://www.oregon.gov/energy/energy-oregon/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Snapshot.aspx.

  7. Land Conservation and Development Commission. “Charge to the Department and the Rulemaking Advisory Committee for Climate-Friendly and Equitable Communities Rulemaking by the Land Conservation and Development Commission.” Department of Land Conservation and Development, State of Oregon, 2020, https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/LAR/Documents/CFEC-Rulemaking-Charge.pdf.

  8. City of Salem. “Climate Actions Audit.” Salem, Oregon, 2020, https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/climate-action-audit-report.pdf.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy. “Alternative Fuels Data Center.” Accessed June 10, 2021. https://afdc.energy.gov/stations/#/find/nearest?location=salem,%20or&fuel=ELEC&page=1

  10. Western Region Climate Center. “Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary.” Salem, Oregon McNary Field Airport location. Accessed March 29, 2021. https://wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?or7500.

  11. Dalton, M., and E. Fleishman, editors. Fifth Oregon Climate Assessment. Oregon Climate Change Research Institute. Oregon State University: Corvallis, Oregon, 2021. https://blogs.oregonstate.edu/occri/oregon-climate-assessments/.

  12. Ibid., 10.

  13. Mooney, Ann, Nathan Gilles, and Denise Lach, “The Vulnerability Assessment Workbook, Assessing your Community’s Vulnerability to Climate Risks.” Corvallis, Oregon: The Pacific Northwest Climate Impacts Research Consortium (CIRC), College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 2020.

  14. Hegewisch, K.C., Abatzoglou, J.T., Chegwidden, O., and Nijssen, B. ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  15. Hegewisch, K.C., Abatzoglou, J.T., Chegwidden, O., and Nijssen, B. ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Climate Change Indicators: Heat-Related Illnesses.” Accessed June 10, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/heat-related-illnesses

  17. Climate and Health in Oregon, Oregon Health Authority, Public Health Division, 2020, https://www.oregon.gov/oha/ph/HealthyEnvironments/climatechange/Pages/profile-report.aspx.

  18. American Public Health Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Extreme Heat Can Impact Our Health in Many Ways.” Accessed March 30, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/extreme-heat-final_508.pdf.

  19. “Our Salem: Vision.” City of Salem. September 2020. https://www.cityofsalem.net/CityDocuments/our-salem-vision-2020-09-03.pdf.

  20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Health Effects from Cyanotoxins.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/cyanohabs/health-effects-cyanotoxins.

  21. Marion County Emergency Operations Plan, 2020-2024. Marion County Emergency Management.

  22. American Meteorological Society. “Glossary of Meteorology.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Water_deficit.

  23. May C., C. Luce, J. Casola, M. Chang, J. Cuhaciyan, M. Dalton, S. Lowe, G. Morishima, P. Mote, A. Petersen, G. Roesch-McNally, and E. York, 2018: Northwest. In Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1036–1100. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH24.

  24. Fifth Oregon Climate Assessment. 47.

  25. Turner, David P., David R. Conklin, and John P. Bolte. “Projected climate change impacts on forest land cover and land use over the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, USA.” Climatic change 133, no. 2 (2015): 335-348.

  26. McEvoy, Andy; Nielsen-Pincus, Max; Holz, Andrés; Catalano, Arielle J.; Gleason, Kelly E. 2020. “Projected Impact of Mid-21st Century Climate Change on Wildfire Hazard in a Major Urban Watershed outside Portland, Oregon USA.” Fire 3, no. 4: 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/fire3040070.

  27. 'Future Climate Dashboard' web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  28. Gibbens, Sarah, and Amy McKeever. “How Breathing in Wildfire Smoke Affects the Body.” National Geographic. September 15, 2020. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-breathing-wildfire-smoke-affects-the-body.

  29. UC Davis Fruit & Nut Research & Information. “About Chilling Hours, Units & Portions.” Accessed March 29, 2021. http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/Weather_Services/chilling_accumulation_models/about_chilling_units/.

  30. Marion County Emergency Operations Plan, 59.

  31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Accessed April 28, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

  32. Hackel, Leor, and Gregg Sparkman. “Reducing Your Carbon Footprint Still Matters.” Slate, October 26, 2018. https://slate.com/technology/2018/10/carbon-footprint-climate-change-personal-action-collective-action.html.

  33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Accessed April 28, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

  34. Wynes, Seth. and Kimberly A. Nicholas. “The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions.” Environmental Research Letters 12, (July 2017): 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541.

  35. Kommenda, Niko. “How your flight emits as much CO2 as many people do in a year.” The Guardian, July 19, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2019/jul/19/carbon-calculator-how-taking-one-flight-emits-as-much-as-many-people-do-in-a-year.

  36. Food and Agriculture Organization. “Key Facts and Findings.” United Nations. Last modified 2020. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197623/icode/.

  37. Ritchie, Hannah. “Food waste is responsible for 6% of global greenhouse gas emissions.” Our World in Data. March 18, 2020. https://ourworldindata.org/food-waste-emissions#:~:text=Food%20production%20accounts%20for%20around,is%20a%20basic%20human%20need.

  38. Salem, Oregon: Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory.” May 24, 2019. https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/final-community-greenhouse-gas-inventory.pdf and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Interactive Dashboard, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, C40 Knowledge Hub, https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/C40-cities-greenhouse-gas-emissions-interactive-dashboard?language=en_US.

  39. Mainwaring, Simon. “Why And How Business Must Tackle Climate Change Now,” Forbes, October 25, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/simonmainwaring/2018/10/25why-and-how-business-must-tackle-climate-change-now/?sh=17b3b9184712.

  40. Shetty, Disha. “A Fifth Of World’s Largest Companies Committed To Net Zero Target,” Forbes, March 24, 2021. https://www.forbes.com/sites/dishashetty/2021/03/24/a-fifth-of-worlds-largest-companies-committed-to-net-zero-target/?sh=56285a58662f.

  41. IPCC, 2014: Annex II: Glossary. In: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  42. IPCC, 2014: Glossary.

  43. Urban Sustainability Directors Network. “Guide to Developing Resilience Hubs.” 2019. http://resilience-hub.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/USDN_ResilienceHubsGuidance-1.pdf.

  44. Williams, Thomas. “Methodologies Used to Estimate and Forecast Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT).” Texas A&M Transportation Institute, July 2016.
  1. Extreme fire danger days are defined as the mean number of days in summer which are classified as very high fire danger days, calculated as the days with 100-hour fuel moisture that is below the 3rd percentile from historical years. Source: ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  2. City of Salem and Cascadia Partners. “Salem, Oregon: Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory.” May 24, 2019. https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/final-community-greenhouse-gas-inventory.pdf.

  3. City of Salem. Salem Housing Needs Analysis 2015-2035. December 2014. https://www.cityofsalem.net/CityDocuments/econorthwest-housing-needs-analysis-2015-2035.pdf

  4. Brown, Kate. “Executive Order No. 20-04: Directing State Agencies to Take Actions to Reduce and Regulate Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Executive Order, Office of the Governor, State of Oregon, 2021, https://www.oregon.gov/gov/Documents/executive_orders/eo_20-04.pdf.

  5. Brown, Kate. “Executive Order No. 17-21: Accelerating Zero Emission Vehicle Adoption in Oregon to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Address Climate Change.” Executive Order, Office of the Governor, State of Oregon, 2017, https://www.oregon.gov/gov/Documents/executive_orders/eo_17-21.pdf.

  6. Oregon Department of Energy. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data.” Accessed April 6, 2021. https://www.oregon.gov/energy/energy-oregon/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Snapshot.aspx.

  7. Land Conservation and Development Commission. “Charge to the Department and the Rulemaking Advisory Committee for Climate-Friendly and Equitable Communities Rulemaking by the Land Conservation and Development Commission.” Department of Land Conservation and Development, State of Oregon, 2020, https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/LAR/Documents/CFEC-Rulemaking-Charge.pdf.

  8. City of Salem. “Climate Actions Audit.” Salem, Oregon, 2020, https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/climate-action-audit-report.pdf.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy. “Alternative Fuels Data Center.” Accessed June 10, 2021. https://afdc.energy.gov/stations/#/find/nearest?location=salem,%20or&fuel=ELEC&page=1

  10. Western Region Climate Center. “Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary.” Salem, Oregon McNary Field Airport location. Accessed March 29, 2021. https://wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?or7500.

  11. Dalton, M., and E. Fleishman, editors. Fifth Oregon Climate Assessment. Oregon Climate Change Research Institute. Oregon State University: Corvallis, Oregon, 2021. https://blogs.oregonstate.edu/occri/oregon-climate-assessments/.

  12. Ibid., 10.

  13. Mooney, Ann, Nathan Gilles, and Denise Lach, “The Vulnerability Assessment Workbook, Assessing your Community’s Vulnerability to Climate Risks.” Corvallis, Oregon: The Pacific Northwest Climate Impacts Research Consortium (CIRC), College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 2020.

  14. Hegewisch, K.C., Abatzoglou, J.T., Chegwidden, O., and Nijssen, B. ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  15. Hegewisch, K.C., Abatzoglou, J.T., Chegwidden, O., and Nijssen, B. ‘Future Climate Dashboard’ web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Climate Change Indicators: Heat-Related Illnesses.” Accessed June 10, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/heat-related-illnesses

  17. Climate and Health in Oregon, Oregon Health Authority, Public Health Division, 2020, https://www.oregon.gov/oha/ph/HealthyEnvironments/climatechange/Pages/profile-report.aspx.

  18. American Public Health Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Extreme Heat Can Impact Our Health in Many Ways.” Accessed March 30, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/extreme-heat-final_508.pdf.

  19. “Our Salem: Vision.” City of Salem. September 2020. https://www.cityofsalem.net/CityDocuments/our-salem-vision-2020-09-03.pdf.

  20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Health Effects from Cyanotoxins.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/cyanohabs/health-effects-cyanotoxins.

  21. Marion County Emergency Operations Plan, 2020-2024. Marion County Emergency Management.

  22. American Meteorological Society. “Glossary of Meteorology.” Accessed April 1, 2021. https://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Water_deficit.

  23. May C., C. Luce, J. Casola, M. Chang, J. Cuhaciyan, M. Dalton, S. Lowe, G. Morishima, P. Mote, A. Petersen, G. Roesch-McNally, and E. York, 2018: Northwest. In Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1036–1100. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH24.

  24. Fifth Oregon Climate Assessment. 47.

  25. Turner, David P., David R. Conklin, and John P. Bolte. “Projected climate change impacts on forest land cover and land use over the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, USA.” Climatic change 133, no. 2 (2015): 335-348.

  26. McEvoy, Andy; Nielsen-Pincus, Max; Holz, Andrés; Catalano, Arielle J.; Gleason, Kelly E. 2020. “Projected Impact of Mid-21st Century Climate Change on Wildfire Hazard in a Major Urban Watershed outside Portland, Oregon USA.” Fire 3, no. 4: 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/fire3040070.

  27. 'Future Climate Dashboard' web tool. Climate Toolbox. Accessed October 2, 2020. https://climatetoolbox.org/.

  28. Gibbens, Sarah, and Amy McKeever. “How Breathing in Wildfire Smoke Affects the Body.” National Geographic. September 15, 2020. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-breathing-wildfire-smoke-affects-the-body.

  29. UC Davis Fruit & Nut Research & Information. “About Chilling Hours, Units & Portions.” Accessed March 29, 2021. http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/Weather_Services/chilling_accumulation_models/about_chilling_units/.

  30. Marion County Emergency Operations Plan, 59.

  31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Accessed April 28, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

  32. Hackel, Leor, and Gregg Sparkman. “Reducing Your Carbon Footprint Still Matters.” Slate, October 26, 2018. https://slate.com/technology/2018/10/carbon-footprint-climate-change-personal-action-collective-action.html.

  33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Accessed April 28, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

  34. Wynes, Seth. and Kimberly A. Nicholas. “The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions.” Environmental Research Letters 12, (July 2017): 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541.

  35. Kommenda, Niko. “How your flight emits as much CO2 as many people do in a year.” The Guardian, July 19, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2019/jul/19/carbon-calculator-how-taking-one-flight-emits-as-much-as-many-people-do-in-a-year.

  36. Food and Agriculture Organization. “Key Facts and Findings.” United Nations. Last modified 2020. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197623/icode/.

  37. Ritchie, Hannah. “Food waste is responsible for 6% of global greenhouse gas emissions.” Our World in Data. March 18, 2020. https://ourworldindata.org/food-waste-emissions#:~:text=Food%20production%20accounts%20for%20around,is%20a%20basic%20human%20need.

  38. Salem, Oregon: Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory.” May 24, 2019. https://www.cityofsalem.net/citydocuments/final-community-greenhouse-gas-inventory.pdf and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Interactive Dashboard, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, C40 Knowledge Hub, https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/C40-cities-greenhouse-gas-emissions-interactive-dashboard?language=en_US.

  39. Mainwaring, Simon. “Why And How Business Must Tackle Climate Change Now,” Forbes, October 25, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/simonmainwaring/2018/10/25why-and-how-business-must-tackle-climate-change-now/?sh=17b3b9184712.

  40. Shetty, Disha. “A Fifth Of World’s Largest Companies Committed To Net Zero Target,” Forbes, March 24, 2021. https://www.forbes.com/sites/dishashetty/2021/03/24/a-fifth-of-worlds-largest-companies-committed-to-net-zero-target/?sh=56285a58662f.

  41. IPCC, 2014: Annex II: Glossary. In: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  42. IPCC, 2014: Glossary.

  43. Urban Sustainability Directors Network. “Guide to Developing Resilience Hubs.” 2019. http://resilience-hub.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/USDN_ResilienceHubsGuidance-1.pdf.

  44. Williams, Thomas. “Methodologies Used to Estimate and Forecast Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT).” Texas A&M Transportation Institute, July 2016.
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